– – References should be 20. Each Reference annotated Bibliography should be 150- 200 words. – References should be from 2014 till today – APA format and – Use MS
– – References should be 20. Each Reference annotated Bibliography should be 150- 200 words. – References should be from 2014 till today – APA format and – Use MS word for the assignment Bozarth, M.A. (1983). Opiate reward mechanisms mapped by intracranial self-administration. In J.E. Smith and J.D. Lane (eds.), (pp. 331-339). Amsterdam: Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press. This book chapter reviews data suggesting that the ventral tegmental area is critically involved in opiate reward. In addition it presents the first of several theoretical reviews by the author suggesting that opiate and psychomotor stimulant reinforcement involves activation of the same dopaminergic substrate. (By the mid-1980s the notion that different addictive drugs might share a common reward substrate would become paradigmatic for the study of drug reinforcement and addiction.) Control procedures and other methodological issues for conducting intracranial self-administration studies are also discussed. Bozarth, M.A. (1987). (ed.) . New York: Springer-Verlag. This book provides the definitive compendium of the experimental methods used to study drug reinforcement. Thirty chapters written by leading experts in each technique provide synopses of the experimental procedures. Both preclinical and clinical methods are presented, grouped by general approach (e.g., preclinical reinforcement studies, preclinical conditioning methods, clinical subjective-effects measures, clinical self-administration procedures). Most chapters present an overview and review of an experimental method, while some chapters provide original experimental data illustrating specific applications of a technique. Interestingly, none of the researchers presented physical dependence tests as a method of assessing potential drug reinforcement; this is probably because of the editor’s assertion that physical dependence is not a motivation for drug-taking behavior and because of the obvious consensus shared by his contributing authors. The book sold-out shortly after its publication and has not been reprinted. It is, however, available in its entirety on the Internet at www.AddictionScience.net and can be downloaded chapter-by-chapter without charge. Purchase the answer to view it
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